Monday, March 28, 2011

Power Plays in Environmental Justice

How do dimensions of power affect the outcomes of environmental justice cases? In Chronicles from the Environmental Justice Frontline, authors Roberts and Toffolon-Weiss make the point that environmental protest movements prove successful only when the powerful stakeholders in a conflict disagree1. This idea supports the neo-pluralist ‘grand majority’ theory that businesses have a privileged position “affecting significant economic interests over which the public can exercise only limited influence.”2 I would argue, however, that this only partially explains the policy outcome that took place in the Louisiana Energy Services (LES) consortium’s failed attempt to build a uranium enrichment facility between two rural black communities in Clairborne Parish, LA in 1994. Pressure from environmental protests played an important role in fragmenting the producer-government coalition of power, causing delays in decision-making that eventually killed the project.

According to neo-pluralist theory, businesses not only “exercise power through their ability to mobilize resources in the political arena,” but also contain structural power due to their importance in the capitalist economy3. LES certainly had insider status while lobbying Louisiana Senator Johnston, Chairman of the Energy Committee, for privatization of enriched uranium supply. In addition, the town’s leaders were businessmen on the Industrial Development Board who recruited LES for development of the facility. Furthermore, Louisiana policy is so growth-oriented that new factories are granted a ten-year exemption on property tax payments4. Yet despite all of the powerful interests in favor of development, environmental racism concerns brought out by protest pressure, along with economic deterioration of the proposal over time, shifted the position of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission against permitting the facility.

Another dimension of power at play in the LES case involves the neo-Marxist theory that the ruling elite define issues in ways that produce a systematic bias in favor of capitalist accumulation2. Roberts and Toffolon-Weiss point out that a paradox repeatedly arises where “environmental justice rulings can hurt the communities they seek to protect by undermining job creation efforts.”5 The ideology that only economic growth is a priority in community governance is pervasive in our capitalist society. The fact that many people in Clairborne Parish wrote letters in favor of the LES facility because of the potential for job creation shows that political institutions have succeeded in shaping citizen preferences to reflect the interests of capital.2 However, a small group of dedicated citizens in Clairborne Parish, with the help and resources of the NAACP and Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund, were able to delay and eventually overcome the powerful elite’s bias toward development. The power narrative for environmental justice cases was forever altered by the LES case, despite the authors’ downplaying its importance.

~Mark Bremer, Green Explored Contributor

-----------------

[1] Roberts, J. Timmons, & Melissa Toffolon-Weiss. 2001. Chronicles from the Environmental Justice Frontline. New York: Cambridge University Press. (p.87)

[2] Carter, Neil. 2007. The Politics of the Environment: Ideas, Activism, Policy. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press. (p.185)

[3] Carter, Neil. 2007. The Politics of the Environment: Ideas, Activism, Policy. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press. (p.184)

[4] Roberts, J. Timmons, & Melissa Toffolon-Weiss. 2001. Chronicles from the Environmental Justice Frontline. New York: Cambridge University Press. (p.69)

[5] Roberts, J. Timmons, & Melissa Toffolon-Weiss. 2001. Chronicles from the Environmental Justice Frontline. New York: Cambridge University Press. (p.92)

12 comments:



  1. http://emc-mee.3abber.com/post/338038 شركات نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة
    http://emc-mee.3abber.com/post/338040 شركات نقل عفش بمكة
    http://emc-mee.3abber.com/post/338301 شركات نقل عفش
    http://emc-mee.3abber.com/post/338302 شركة تنظيف خزانات بالمدينة المنورة

    ReplyDelete

  2. http://emc-mee.3abber.com/post/338181 شركات تنظيف بمكة
    http://emc-mee.3abber.com/post/338037 شركة مكافحة حشرات
    http://emc-mee.3abber.com/post/338031 شركة تنظيف بالدمام
    http://emc-mee.3abber.com/post/338030 شركة تنظيف بالمدينة
    http://emc-mee.3abber.com/post/338028 شركة تنظيف بالطائف

    ReplyDelete






  3. http://transferefurniture.bcz.com/2016/07/31/%d8%b4%d8%b1%d9%83%d8%a9-%d9%86%d9%82%d9%84-%d8%a7%d8%ab%d8%a7%d8%ab-%d8%a8%d8%ac%d8%af%d8%a9/ شركة نقل عفش بجدة
    http://transferefurniture.bcz.com/2016/08/01/%d8%b4%d8%b1%d9%83%d8%a9-%d9%86%d9%82%d9%84-%d8%b9%d9%81%d8%b4-%d8%a8%d8%a7%d9%84%d9%85%d8%af%d9%8a%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%a7%d9%84%d9%85%d9%86%d9%88%d8%b1%d8%a9/ شركة نقل عفش بالمدينة المنورة
    http://transferefurniture.bcz.com/2016/08/01/%d8%b4%d8%b1%d9%83%d8%a9-%d9%86%d9%82%d9%84-%d8%b9%d9%81%d8%b4-%d8%a8%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%af%d9%85%d8%a7%d9%85/ شركة نقل عفش بالدمام
    http://transferefurniture.bcz.com/2016/07/31/%d8%b4%d8%b1%d9%83%d8%a9-%d9%86%d9%82%d9%84-%d8%b9%d9%81%d8%b4-%d8%a8%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b1%d9%8a%d8%a7%d8%b6/ شركة نقل عفش بالرياض

    ReplyDelete


  4. http://transferefurniture.bcz.com/%d8%b4%d8%b1%d9%83%d8%a9-%d8%aa%d9%86%d8%b8%d9%8a%d9%81-%d8%ae%d8%b2%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a7%d8%aa-%d8%a8%d8%a7%d9%84%d9%85%d8%af%d9%8a%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%a7%d9%84%d9%85%d9%86%d9%88%d8%b1%d8%a9/
    http://transferefurniture.bcz.com/%d8%b4%d8%b1%d9%83%d8%a9-%d8%aa%d9%86%d8%b8%d9%8a%d9%81-%d8%a8%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b7%d8%a7%d8%a6%d9%81/
    http://transferefurniture.bcz.com/%d8%b4%d8%b1%d9%83%d8%a7%d8%aa-%d8%a7%d9%84%d9%86%d9%82%d9%84-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b9%d9%81%d8%b4-jumperads-com/
    http://transferefurniture.bcz.com/%d8%b4%d8%b1%d9%83%d8%a9-%d9%85%d9%83%d8%a7%d9%81%d8%ad%d8%a9-%d8%ad%d8%b4%d8%b1%d8%a7%d8%aa-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b4%d8%a7%d9%85%d9%84%d8%a9/

    ReplyDelete
  5. Very informative post for us.
    Dell Tech Support

    ReplyDelete
  6. https://custory.com/gatsby/ - 개츠비카지노 /
    https://custory.com/bacara/ - 바카라사이트 /
    https://custory.com/cass/ - 카지노사이트 /
    https://custory.com/trump/ - 트럼프카지노 /

    ReplyDelete
  7. https://como79.com/first/ - 퍼스트카지노 /
    https://como79.com/super/ - 슈퍼카지노 /
    https://como79.com/trump/ - 트럼프카지노 /

    ReplyDelete
  8. https://stylebet77.com/obama/ - 오바마카지노 /
    https://stylebet77.com/yescasino/ - YES카지노 /

    ReplyDelete
  9. https://dancesweb.com/trump/ - 트럼프카지노 /
    https://dancesweb.com/33casino/ - 33카지노 /
    https://dancesweb.com/gatsby/ - 개츠비카지노 /

    ReplyDelete
  10. https://pauio.com/trum/ - 트럼프카지노 /
    https://pauio.com/woori/ - 우리카지노 /
    https://pauio.com/mca/ - 엠카지노 /
    https://pauio.com/gatsby/ - 개츠비카지노 /
    https://pauio.com/theking/ - 더킹카지노 /

    ReplyDelete



  11. The hectic world, a usual silhouette of wrinkled-faces and lack of time & good people make absolute absence of Love in our lives. Only a smile means to exist in the whole world bringing itself a Comet of Love. So it takes you believe onRussian Escorts in Kolkata liable to fulfill your lives with real sense of love. Check our other Services...
    Russian Escorts in Kolkata
    Russian Escorts in Kolkata
    Russian Escorts in Kolkata
    Russian Escorts in Lucknow
    Russian Escorts in Lucknow

    ReplyDelete


  12. After this brings up its clients get entertained well with its premium services, the Russian Call Girls in Lucknowis liable to increase the level of fun by its quality services dissimilar to get anywhere. So, let us forget everything and take pleasure in what you wait for a long time. Check our other Services...
    Russian Call Girls in Mahipalpur
    Russian Call Girls in Mahipalpur
    Russian Call Girls in Mahipalpur
    Russian Call Girls in Mahipalpur
    Russian Call Girls in Mahipalpur


    ReplyDelete